Nepal is located in South Asia and shares territorial borders with India and China with an area of 147,181 square kilometers and a population of approximately 30 million. Kathmandu is the nation’s capital and the country’s largest metropolitan city. Previously ruled supposed to be the holiest Hindu temple in the world. Not only for the Hindus but also for the Buddhists Nepal offers a unique -place of pilgrimage as it happens to be the birthplace of Lord Buddha, the apostle of peace and compassion. Modern Nepal is a secular parliamentary republic. Its economy depends on tourism,handicrafts, garments, carpets, tea, coffee, IT services, banking and hydro power.
Nepal is bordered by China to the north and India to the south, east, and west. It is separated from Bangladesh by a narrow Indian corridor and from Bhutan by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal is located in the Himalayas and is home to eight of the world’s ten tallest, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Its southern Madhesh region is fertile and humid.The country has an area of 147,181 square kilometers (56,827 sq mi), making it the world’s 93rd largest country by area. It is also the 41st most populous country.
Nepal is first recorded in texts from the Vedic Age, the era that founded Hinduism, the country’s predominant religion. Nepal was the world’s last Hindu monarchy. Siddharta Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in the country’s Rupandehi District. Buddhism is the country’s second largest religion, with Tibetan Buddhism being the chief sect. The country also has minorities of Muslims, Kiratans and Christians.
Established in the 18th century, the early modern Kingdom of Nepal was led by the Shah dynasty, after Prithvi Narayan Shahunified many principalities in the region. The Rana dynasty administered Nepal’s government as hereditary Prime Ministers until 1951. A multiparty democracy evolved until King Mahendra enacted the panchayat system in 1960. In 1990, a parliamentary government was permitted by King Birendra. Nepal faced a decade-long Communist Maoist insurgency and mass protests against the authoritarian King Gyanendra in 2005, which led to the abolition of the monarchy in 2008. Its 2nd constituent assemblypromulgated a new constitution in 2015.
The Nepalese government works in the framework of a representative democracy with seven federal provinces. Nepal is adeveloping nation, ranking 145th on the Human Development Index (HDI) in 2014. The country struggles with the transition from a monarchy to a republic. It also suffers from high levels of hunger and poverty. Despite these challenges, Nepal is making steady progress, with the government declaring its commitment to elevate the nation from least developed country status in 2022.
Nepal has friendship treaties with India and the United Kingdom. It is a founding member and hosts the permanent secretariat of SAARC. It is also a member of the United Nations and BIMSTEC.
Today, the Interim Constitution of Nepal has considered the co-operative sector as one of the three pillars for national development. The major types of co-operative societies operating in Nepal are Saving and Credit, Multipurpose, Dairy, Agriculture, Fruits and Vegetables, Bee Keeping, Tea, Coffee, Consumers, Science and Technology, and Energy. It is believed that some 5 million people are already affiliated in approximately 32,663 cooperatives and more than 57,894 people are employed directly in Cooperative business.(2015, Department of Cooperatives)